Angiogenesis and direct myocardial revascularization by Roger J. Laham, Donald S. Baim

By Roger J. Laham, Donald S. Baim

An interdisciplinary panel of pioneers and opinion leaders assessment the fundamental, preclinical, scientific, and developmental pathways to new remedy options, akin to healing angiogenesis and myogenesis. The authors reap the benefits of new organic realizing, novel healing ambitions, a number of to be had and well-studied healing techniques, and the required imaging ideas to degree results. Their in-depth discussions disguise the id of latest healing pursuits and pathways, the research of transcriptional elements, grasp swap molecules, cell-based techniques, chemokines, a greater knowing of the consequences of getting older, endothelial disorder, and hypercholesterolemia in line with angiogenic stimuli. Highlights contain exam of drug supply difficulties, results degree, stem remedy, high-risk interventions, improvement pathways, and destiny probabilities.

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However, the mesenchymal cells fail to differentiate into vascular smooth muscle cells (45). One of the genes that was shown to be downregulated in these mice was the VEGF165 receptor neuropilin, suggesting that dHAND may be a critical mediator of the VEGF signaling pathway. OVERLAPPING TRANSCRIPTIONAL MECHANISMS BETWEEN THE HEMATOPOIETIC AND ENDOTHELIAL LINEAGES One of the most recent findings regarding the transcriptional regulation of vascular development was the determination that the transcription factor SCL/tal-1, which was originally thought to play a role strictly in hematopoiesis, also appears to be critical for embryonic blood vessel development.

Similarly, the targeted disruption of MEF2C leads to abnormalities in smooth muscle cell differentiation and the inability of endothelial cells to form into vascular structures (42). LKLF is a member of the krueppel-like family of zinc finger transcription factors. ) Family Role AML-1 (53) ELF-1 (4) Ets-1 (5) Fli-1 (7) CBF ETS (wHTH) ETS (wHTH) ETS (wHTH) NERF2 (48) TEL (49) MEF2 (42) ETS (wHTH) ETS (wHTH) MADS box SMAD5 (43) MADS box SCL/tal-1 (6) dHAND (45) bHLH bHLH Tfeb (29) HESR1, gridlock (36,37) bHLH-Zip bHLH EPAS (18,19) HIF-1a (16) ARNT (13) Fra1 (27) Vezf1 (35) LKLF (28) PAS-bHLH PAS-bHLH PAS-bHLH bZip Zinc finger Zinc finger HOXD3 (30) Homeobox COUP-TFII (54) Nuclear receptor Angiogenesis Tie2 gene regulation Angiogenesis Vascular development, Tie2 gene regulation Tie2 gene regulation Yolk sac angiogenesis Vascular development, smooth muscle cell differentiation Smooth muscle differentiation, angiogenesis Vascular development Vascular smooth muscle differentiation Placental vascularization Aorta development, endothelial tube formation Angiogenesis Angiogenesis Angiogenesis Endothelial differentiation Endothelial differentiation Vascular smooth muscle differentiation Endothelial response to angiogenic factors Yolk sac angiogenesis See text for abbreviations.

In contrast, neovascularization in response to ischemia in the pig ameroid model consists mainly of small vessels about the size of capillaries that lack an arterial coat. These vessels mostly develop around areas of focal necrosis (7), although they can be found throughout the ischemic territory. The low pressure in the collateral system is perhaps one of the reasons why these vessels remain thin-walled but do not leak. Another explanation could be that porcine myocardium does not have an efficient smooth musclerecruiting mechanism such as the angiopoietin-tie-2 system (8).

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