By Peter B. Golden
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Additional info for An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East
TIIE lANGUAGES OF 1HE CAUCASUS The Caucasus is a region of extraordinary linguistic diversity. This is particularly true of the North Caucasus, "the mountain of tongues" of the medieval Islarnic geographers. "55 This region, because of its ethno-linguistic complexity (although a common "mountaineer" culture did develop) has always had the need for a lingua franca. Turkic, in the form of Azeri, Qumuq or Nogay, bas, since the Turkic takeover of the lowland regions, fulfilled this function. Indeed, the Turkicization of the many areas of the North Caucasus56 was halted only by the Russian Revolution.
The latter have undergone considerable Turkic influence. 2) Baltic Finnic : the Finns, Karelians, Veps, Izor/lngrians, Liv and Yod. 54 The Lapps, who constitute a separate branch of Finnic, or perhaps a separate grouping within Uralic (representing, it bas been suggested, a Uralicized population) are noted here for the sake of cornpleteness. CHAPTERONE 35 In pre-historie times it seems very likely that there were speakers of Dravidian languages on the sou them periphery of Central Asia, extending from Elam/Xuzistân in Iran to India.
Stockbreeding and metallurgical elements were further emphasized. Groups with similar cultures are found in Tuva and elsewhere in South Siberia. The Okunevo type was replaced by the Andronovo culture, (or separate and distinct Andronovo-type cultures) of Western Eurasian origin, ca. C. (or possibly earlier), which was again dominated by a Europoid population, most probably Indo-Iranian, with a more sedentary style of stockbreeding. Metallurgy continued to be important. The Andronovo-type cultures extended from the Pontic steppes to the Y enisei.