By Jeremy Colls
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Additional resources for Air Pollution
Subsequent evolution of the atmosphere has been dominated by the balance between production and consumption of both CO2 and O2. 2 Natural constituents of air People tend to refer to air as though it consists of ‘air’ molecules, which is evidence of the spatial and temporal constancy of its properties that we take for granted. Consider first the molecular components that make up unpolluted air. Air consists of a number of gases that have fairly constant average proportions, both at different horizontal and vertical positions and at different times.
Any further cooling results in the ‘excess’ water being condensed out as cloud droplets. If the cooling occurs because the air is close to a cold ground surface, then dew results. The complexity of this sequence for any air mass is responsible for the variability of water vapour concentration in space and time. 3 for the well-mixed gases, we can say that the highest vapour concentrations occur in the humid tropics, with temperatures of 30 °C and relative humidities of near 100%. 3%. 1%. The global average mixing ratio is around 1%, so the abundance of water vapour is similar to that of argon.
This reflects the fewer opportunities for reducing N emissions via low N fuel, fuel substitution and flue gas deNox. 4 Ammonia A further class of emissions is often grouped as NHy, meaning the sum of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4). The three main sources of atmospheric ammonia are livestock farming and animal wastes, with emissions primarily due to the decomposition of urea from large animal wastes and uric acid from poultry wastes. The overall total emission from these sources has increased with the intensification of agriculture, which has also changed the nature of the emissions from area to point sources.