Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology. Hammanr

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Kalinowska M (1994) Phytochemistry 36:617 93. Zimowski J (1994) Acta Biochimica Polonica 41:202 94. Zimowski J (1998) Plant Sci 136:139 95. Moehs CP, Allen PV, Friedman M, Belknap WR (1997) Plant J 11:227 96. Vogt T, Jones P (2000) Trends Plant Sci 5:380 Received: June 2001 Three-Phase Oxygen Absorption and its Effect on Fermentation E. Nagy Kaposvar University, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Veszprém, Egyetem ut 2. hu The absorption rate of oxygen in the presence of a second, dispersed, organic phase can be significantly increased due to the higher solubility and diffusivity of oxygen in the organic phase.

47 List of Abbreviations aAS bAS CS DS EST LS LuP OSC PCR SC a-Amyrin synthase b-Amyrin synthase Cycloartenol synthase Dammarenediol synthase Expressed sequence tag Lanosterol synthase Lupeol synthase Oxidosqualene cyclase Polymerase chain reaction Squalene-hopene cyclase 1 Introduction Collectively plants synthesise a diverse array of secondary metabolites, either as part of normal growth and development or in response to pathogen attack or stress. By definition, secondary metabolites are regarded as “luxury items” that are not required for growth and reproduction of the plant, at least under defined conditions.

40 K. Haralampidis et al. Fig. 3. Relatedness between deduced amino acid sequences of members of the OSC superfamily. o (TRW), Taraxacum officinale lupeol synthase (AB025345). 5c) [50]. Amino acid distances were calculated using the Dayhoff PAM matrix method of the “Protdist” program of PHYLIP. The numbers indicate the numbers of bootstrap replications (out of 500) in which the given branching was observed. The protein parsimony method (the “Protpars” program of PHYLIP) produced trees with essentially identical topologies Mechanism-based irreversible inhibitors and mutational analysis with OSCs have shown that the highly conserved amino acid motif DCTAE is required for substrate binding [27, 46, 57–59] (Table 3), and the conserved aspartate residue within this motif (D456) has been implicated as the likely electrophilic activator in the generation of the protosteryl cation for LS [57, 58, 60].

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