A Chance Constrained Approach to Fractional Programming with by Gupta S. N.

By Gupta S. N.

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We can declare another Courier class in the Fred namespace—and we can use both objects in our code without the errors we see when redeclaring the same class in the top-level namespace. This avoids the problem where you might want to use elements from two (or more) frameworks, and both have a class named Log. Namespaces can also be created within namespaces, simply by using the namespace separator again. How about a site with both a blog and an ecommerce function? It might have a namespaced class structure, such as: shop products Products ProductCategories shipping Courier admin user User Our Courier class is now nested two levels deep, so we’d put its class definition in a file with shop/shipping in the namespace declaration at the top.

To define the rules for autoloading, we use another magic method: __autoload(). In the earlier example, we included the file, but as an alternative, we could change our example to have an autoload function: function __autoload($classname) { include strtolower($classname) . php'; } Autoloading is only useful if you name and store the files containing your class definitions in a very predictable way. php extension, so the autoload function handles this case. It is possible to make a complex autoloading function if you need one.

By default, if you count() an object in PHP, you’ll receive a count of how many properties it has. However, implementing the Countable interface as shown above allows us to hook into this. We can now take advantage of this feature by writing code like this: $courier = new Courier(); $courier->ship(new Parcel()); $courier->ship(new Parcel()); $courier->ship(new Parcel()); echo count($courier); // outputs 3 When we implement interfaces, we must always declare the functions defined in an interface.

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